Analysis of eosinophilic polynuclear drugs in the blood: Tests And Results

Eosinophils represent a type of polynuclear, one of the groups of white blood cells. There are 2 other groups of white blood cells, we talk about lymphocytes and monocytes.

For what purpose should an analysis of eosinophilic polynuclear drugs be carried out? A high level of eosinophilic polynuclear can have different meanings. Decryption and interpretation of test results.

What are eosinophils?

Polynuclear cells are white blood cells (or leukocytes), and therefore defense cells of the body.

There are several types of white blood cells, including:

  • the polynuclear, so named, because they seem to have several nuclei;
  • mononuclear cells, which include “monocytes” and “lymphocytes”.

Polynuclear cells are cells that circulate in the blood and actually have a multilobed nucleus. Inside, polynuclear cells contain “granulations”, which take on different colors when dyed with special dyes.

We therefore distinguish:

  • neutrophils, whose granulations retain so-called neutral dyes (beige tint);
  • eosinophilic polynuclear cells, whose large granulations are dyed orange;
  • basophil polynuclear cells, which contain large purplish-red granulations.

These mobile cells travel to sites in the body where infection or inflammation occurs. This migration occurs under the influence of chemical molecules emitted by the pathogen or induced by it, which attract them to the “right” place.

Eosinophils are much less numerous than neutrophils. They represent 1 to 3% of the white blood cells circulating in the blood.

The number of eosinophilic polynuclear ranges from 0.04 to 0.4 billion per liter of blood (40 to 400 eosinophils/mm3blood).

Why do an analysis of the level of eosinophils?

The measurement of white blood cells in general is recommended in many situations, especially in case of infection.

Most often, the doctor prescribes a “complete blood count” (complete blood count) that details the concentration of different types of blood cells.

What does the exam involve?

The examination is a simple venous blood sample, usually taken from the elbow crease. It is not necessary to be fasting to perform this analysis.

It is possible to observe the appearance of polynuclear cells under a microscope, from a blood smear.

What results can be expected from an analysis of eosinophils?

The concentration of eosinophilic polynuclear drugs can be increased (eosinophilia) or lowered compared to the standards (eosinopenia).

How to interpret a high level of eosinophils?

When the level of eosinophils is high, it is called hyper-eosinophilia.

A moderate or strong increase in the number of white blood cells, and in particular eosinophils, can be seen in many situations:

  • in most digestive parasitic diseases;
  • in allergic reactions;
  • in certain skin diseases (atopic dermatoses, eczema, chronic pruritus, etc.);
  • in certain systemic diseases (connectivity, Churg and Strauss disease, etc.);
  • in digestive diseases (Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, etc.);
  • after taking certain medications (antibiotics, anti-tuberculosis, antifungal, antiparasitic, psychotropic, anti-epileptic, oral antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, etc.);
  • in certain cancers or lymphomas, especially in Hodgkin’s disease.

How to interpret a high level of eosinophils?

The decrease in the number of eosinophils, on the contrary, may be related to:

  • taking treatment with corticosteroids or ACTH;
  • acute stress;
  • hemodialysis;
  • severe viral or bacterial infections.

The interpretation of the results will depend on other blood values and the age, symptoms, history of the patient.

Treatments for high eosinophilic polynuclear levels

In case of a high level of eosinophilic polynuclear due to an allergy or parasite, your doctor will prescribe treatment. This adapted treatment aims to alleviate symptoms and bring your eosinophilic polynuclear level back to normal.

If it is an autoimmune disease, your doctor will ask you to perform other tests.

Image Credit: Image by Tatiana from Pixabay

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