Testicular Pain - Possible Causes
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How to define pain and swelling of the testicles?

The testicle is a complex organ, particularly sensitive to minor lesions, and extremely sensitive. Any testicular problem can cause immense pain.

Testicular pain or swelling in the testicle are abnormal signs that require medical attention. The diagnosis can in no case be made at home alone. The problem can be mild or sometimes very serious, going so far as to require the removal of the testicle.

Testicular pain is scrotal pain, i.e. pain that encompasses the entire scrotum. It is a pain that goes up following the anatomical path of the different ducts to reach the iliac fossa and even the lumbar fossa.

What are the causes of pain and swelling of the testicles?

The first diagnosis of testicular pain is testicular torsion: torsion of the spermatic cord containing blood vessels resulting in testicular ischemia and necrosis (i.e. death of the testicle) if no treatment is provided in time:

  • It is a brutal, intense pain, without a triggering factor
  • It affects children and young adults and is exceptional in men over 30 years of age
  • It is accompanied by swelling and redness
  • palpation is made impossible as the pain is great
  • It requires rapid surgical exploration in order to deform the spermatic cord. Once this step is over, the doctor fixes the testicle to avoid a recurrence.

Pain is considered testicular torsion until proven otherwise. Again, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible.

Other possible causes of testicular pain and swelling are:

  • orchiepididymitis: inflammation of an epididymis (or epididymitis) and inflammation of a testicle most often accompanied by fever and burning when urinating
  • testicular trauma, following a blow to the testicles: it can be a scrotal hematoma, a contusion, or a “fracture” of the testicle
  • testicular cancer (if you have a lump, pain, and swelling)

Note that hydrocele, or accumulation of water around the testicle, causes a sometimes impressive swelling of the entire scrotum. But most often there is no associated pain.

Sometimes pain and swelling don’t have clear causes, but it’s important to proceed by elimination and rule out other potential causes.

It is possible for the pain to become chronic. This may include:

  • varicocele: varicose dilation (varicose veins) of the veins of the spermatic cord. The blood circuit is blocked and blood circulation slows down. As a result, sperm production is reduced.
  • the presence of cysts on the epididymis (called spermatocele)

What are the consequences of pain and swelling of the testicles?

The pain and swelling of the testicles cause more or less significant discomfort, yet affect the sexual life of the affected person.

If these problems are poorly treated or not treated in time, the consequences can be dramatic: sterility, and even removal of a testicle (especially in the case of testicular torsion not treated in time).

What are the solutions to relieve pain and swelling of the testicles?

An emergency consultation with a doctor is essential in case of pain and swelling of the testicles. The physician may, depending on the case:

  • perform a scrotal ultrasound
  • perform surgery
  • Offer to wear underwear that provides special support, if necessary.

To prevent the occurrence of hydrocele, varicocele, or testicular problems, it is important to perform a regular self-examination (self-examination).

Image Credit: Image by pressfoto on Freepik

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